Jaipur, Rajasthan’s biggest city and its capital, was built in 1727 AD by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II. The city is named after the name of Maharaja Jai Singh II.
Jaipur happens to be the first planned city of India. At the age of 11, Maharaja Jai Singh, came into power after the demise of his father Maharaja Bishan Singh.
Kachwaha Rajputs, who came into power in 12th century, are said to be Jai Singh’s ancestors. The special relationship between the Amber rulers and Mughal brought the Kanchwahas real power, influence and wealth and attaining a reputed place in Rajasthan. They made their alliance with Mughals due to their rivalry with Sisodia Rajputs, rulers of Mewar. Kachwaha Rajputs ruled the kingdoms of Mewar (Udaipur) and Marwar (Jodhpur) from the glorious Amber Fort. Jai Singh supported Aurangzeb’s son Azam Shah in the battle of succession, which created unrest among people. But Azam Shah lost this bid to throne to his brother Bahadur Shah.
Azam Shah then demanded the removal of Jai Singh from the throne. With the ally of Mughals, Jai Singh brought himself back to power. The kingdom flourished in his reign and Jai Singh built his capital around Amber Fort and Jaipur was eventually developed as India’s first ever planned city. City was built under the architectural guidance of Vidhyadhar Bhattacharya, chief architect from Bengal. Vidhyadhar Bhattacharya, followed the principles of Shilpa Shastra (the science of Indian architecture), and Vastu Shastra (the ancient Indian knowledge on astronomy), further developed and discussed the plan with Jai Singh.
It is said that the foundation of the city was laid down on 18th November 1727 by Jai Singh himself. It took 4 years to build city’s major places-the roads, the square, palaces and the fortification of the boundaries.
After the death of Jai Singh in 1744, his sons fought for power and without a king, the city became open to intrusion by neighbouring states. Rajputs and Marathas took over most of Jaipur.
Later in 1876, Maharaja Ram Singh adorned the city in pink colour, which is supposed to be associated with hospitality, to welcome the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII) to the city. Thus it acquired the name Pink City. Ramgarh Lake was also built by Maharaja Ram Singh to provide water to the budding and prospering city.
In 1922, the throne was taken over by Man Singh II, and it was at that time, buildings like secretariat, schools, and hospitals were built. After independence, Jaipur merged with Jodhpur, Jaisalmer and Bikaner to form the largest state of India with Jaipur as its capital.